MedComm | Targeting inorganic nanoparticles to tumors using biological membrane-coated technology


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Schematic illustration of novel approaches for biomimetic precision antitumor strategies based on biological membrane-coated inorganic nanoparticles

Inorganic nanoparticles have extensively revolutionized the effectiveness of cancer therapeutics due to their distinct physicochemical properties. However, the therapeutic efficiency of inorganic nanoparticles is greatly hampered by the complex tumor microenvironment, patient heterogeneity, and systemic nonspecific toxicity. The biomimetic technology based on biological membranes (cell- or bacteria-derived membranes) is a promising strategy to confer unique characteristics to inorganic nanoparticles, such as superior biocompatibility, prolonged circulation time, immunogenicity, homologous tumor targeting, and flexible engineering approaches on the surface, resulting in the enhanced therapeutic efficacy of inorganic nanoparticles against cancer. Therefore, a greater push toward developing biomimetic-based nanotechnology could increase the specificity and potency of inorganic nanoparticles for effective cancer treatment. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in biological membrane-coated inorganic nanoparticles in cancer precise therapy and highlight the different types of engineered approaches, applications, mechanisms, and future perspectives. The surface engineering of biological membrane can greatly enhance their targeting, intelligence, and functionality, thereby realizing stronger tumor therapy effects. Further advances in materials science, biomedicine, and oncology can facilitate the clinical translation of biological membrane-coated inorganic nanoparticles.

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